In nonfiction, it would often be convenient for the English language to have a standard, gender-neutral alternative to a generic “he,” “him,” or “himself.”
The point doesn’t arise as often in fiction. If you’re referring to a specific character, then, well, as the author, you ought to know the gender of your character. The issue does come up occasionally in fiction, though.
Back to nonfiction, we often write things like “he or she” or, more compactly, “he/she.” Some readers don’t like the use of the slash—which becomes really interesting when you want to write “and/or” without using the slash. (There are times in nonfiction where you want to make a statement where either the “and” or the “or” may apply specifically to the reader—and since it will be “and” for some readers, but “or” for others, the author must allow for both possibilities.)
One alternative that has been in use for hundreds of years is to use “he” to imply “he or she.” This seems to favor masculinity.
There are authors who do the opposite, using a generic “she.” Why not? It seems fair to me. She would be a fool to disagree, even if she is a he. 🙂
A few authors have taken this a step further, alternating between he and she (either every other pronoun or every other paragraph). However, this can get confusing, especially if some uses of “he” or “she” are actually gender specific.
Did you know that some pronouns have actually been invented for just this purpose? (The idea has been around for at least a hundred years.) Here is a sample:
- Use an apostrophe. For example, ‘e is “he” or “she,” h’ is “him” or “her,” ‘s is “his” or “hers,” and ‘self is “himself” or “herself.”
- Add a ‘z.’ For example, “zhe,” “zher,” or “zhim.” One problem with this is that there are some variations among the authors that employ this system (e.g. an ‘m’ may be used for one of the pronouns instead of a ‘z’).
- Change the vowel to a ‘u.’ For example, “hu,” “hus,” “hum,” and “humself.” This system left everything masculine, but just changed the vowel, which doesn’t quite resolve the problem.
Unfortunately, none have been in practice frequently enough to become adopted as a standard. (At least, not yet.)
You can see a main hurdle—or, rather, you can hear it—if you imagine trying to speak conversationally with someone using the pronouns above. Would you like to pronounce those z’s? Would you sound funny with those u’s? Imagine other people’s surprise if you suddenly spring those pronouns on them mid-sentence.
Another hurdle has been from the editors and publishers. Prior to print-on-demand, the only way for such gender-neutral pronouns to make a large-scale impact in print was for major publishers (not necessarily books—newspapers would have worked just as well) to adopt them. It would have been a huge risk to take, with perhaps a high probability for failure. And even if they had done this on a wide scale, lack of adoption in everyday conversation would still have been a major roadblock.
Why would you need these pronouns in everyday conversation? You don’t have to be formal when conversing with acquaintances, so the use of “they” or “their” will work just fine for “he or she” or “his or her.” Even informal writing often adopts “they” and “their” as the solution to this problem.
The modern publishing concepts of print-on-demand and e-books lend authors the freedom to adopt such pronouns, but, again, it’s a large risk to take. For most books, the audience isn’t likely to be receptive to the use of such pronouns.
If a few big authors bravely decided to adopt them, perhaps that would have a big impact. The small author might find too much risk and not enough reward, except maybe for a rare niche audience.
Gender-neutral pronouns seem to be academically fascinating, but don’t seem likely at this point to take off. Language can change significantly in the long-term, though. So who knows?
Are we like black-and-white television? Will children in the 22nd century say things like, “Can you believe they used ‘he’ to mean ‘he or she’ back then?”
1. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gender-specific_and_gender-neutral_pronouns
2. A WordPress blog for this: http://genderneutralpronoun.wordpress.com/
3. An editorial: http://www.progress.org/fold162.htm
4. Wiktionary (rather comprehensive list): http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:List_of_protologisms_by_topic/third_person_singular_gender_neutral_pronouns
5. Huffington Post (Swedish “hen”): http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/11/swedish-gender-neutral-pronoun-hen-national-encyclopedia_n_3063293.html
Chris McMullen, author of A Detailed Guide to Self-Publishing with Amazon and Other Online Booksellers, Vol. 1 (formatting/publishing) and Vol. 2 (packaging/marketing)
I have no problem using “she or he” or “him- or herself” or any other construction that involves listing both the male and female pronouns. It isn’t that many keystrokes, honestly, and I find it very clear.
Sex-neutral (if we’re talking about language “gender” has a linguistic meaning aside from sex) pronouns are, I believe, essentially dehumanizing. When speaking of a person unknown one can visualize a man or a woman, but one does not visualize a sexless person, because human beings are not ordinary sexless.
The division of human beings into dimorphic sexes is an inherent part of who we are as a species. Men and women are equal, in the sense that all human beings have an intrinsic worth as part of the human race, but they are not the same. I believe that speaking as if they are robs us of something very precious.
Those are excellent points. 🙂 I tend to write “he or she,” and such, except when I feel less formal and slip in a “their.” I wasn’t thinking of a new pronoun that would help to establish equality; I was focused on allowing for the possibility of not knowing.
Maybe we can put the gender in them explicitly to humanize them. For example, instead of “he or she,” let’s write “sex-he.” Surely, this would be a lot more popular. 🙂
It seems like the same problems that prevented the US from switching over to the metric system. Interesting solutions up there that have been created, I almost want to use them at work to confuse people, lol.
Or just walk into a gas station in the US, drop a hundred on the counter, and demand 20 liters of gasoline and your change (do it with gender-neutral pronouns and you get bonus points). 🙂
That’s interesting how those variations exist, but are barely used. Really curious where they came from. Though, I do see where confusion could come from in all three examples.
It would almost seem like learning Pig-Latin. 🙂
I am a female who believes in equality in pay for women…but not a feminist to the extreme that a pronoun choice would bother me…if it does bother someone…I would say they are rather simple minded.
When they (or should I say he or she) put me in charge of such things, I shall demand equal pay for women, but not equal pronouns. 🙂
As a non-fiction writer at the mo. I have no problem either using he or she and if it’s one of my more informal pieces they and their. Occasionally I use “he” with the traditional explanation at the beginning of the text. The only time I am immutable about using “she” is when I refer to God…well, duh…it’s obv. innit?
Oh, I hadn’t even thought about which pronoun to use with respect to God. That’s a great point. 🙂
I was just contemplating this issue yesterday- crazy timing! My considerations were E (he/she) and es (his/hers) but it didn’t really seem to work. Probably easier to say than all those z’s, though… 🙂
I could go for e, em, es, and emself; maybe ‘e’ for everyone. It is easy on the pronunciation. 🙂
Here is one more further reading (or listening) to consider. As she points out in this video, it doesn’t make too much difference until you have several constructs in one sentence. http://www.merriam-webster.com/video/0033-hisher.htm It is about his her rather than he she, but it talks about some of the same issues.
I’m going to look around your site some more.
Thank you for adding this. 🙂