How to Edit/Adjust Shapes in Photoshop 2019 (Tutorial)



Changing the shape of a polygon in Adobe Photoshop isn’t as intuitive as it could be.

But it can be done, and the process is fairly simple.

I’ll show you how to do this for a triangle.

First, find the Polygon tool. For me, this shows up on a toolbar on the left. (Toolbars can be moved around though, so this isn’t necessarily the case for you.)

The icon might look different on your toolbar. It could be a rectangle, ellipse, line, or a star, depending on which form of the tool was used previously.

If it doesn’t look like a hexagon (that is, if it looks like a rectangle, ellipse, line, or a star), hold the cursor (left-click) on the shape tool until the other options show up. Choose the hexagon (which is the Polygon tool).

If you wish to make a triangle, enter 3 for the Number of Sides.

Set the width and height as desired.

Place your cursor somewhere on the canvas, left-click once, and you should see a triangle.

When the shape is selected, you should see another toolbar on the screen. This will let you adjust, for example, the fill color, the outline color, and the outline thickness.

My fill was initially transparent, but then I changed it to red. I also changed the stroke (outline) color to black and decreased its thickness from 10 px down to 3 px. (You will see this later.)

Use whatever colors and thickness suit your needs. Try experimenting with them to see how this works. (If it doesn’t seem to be working, try inserting a new triangle after you adjust the settings.)

When you select the polygon, you see little markers on the corners (called the vertices). You can see these markers in the triangle shown above.

BUT… if you try to move these markers and the entire shape moves, you can easily get frustrated.

You want to click on the marker to move the marker, thereby changing the shape or orientation of the triangle. But the whole triangle simply moves without changing shape.

If that happens, don’t worry, there is a simple fix.

This happens when the object is selected using the Path Selection Tool, which is a black arrowhead like the one shown below.

What you need to do is change this to the Direct Selection Tool, which is a white arrowhead like the one shown below.

It’s tricky because they look very similar.

And because you don’t see both arrows on the main toolbar at the same time.

You need to left-click on the Path Selection Tool (the black arrowhead) by holding the left button down until both arrowheads appear, and then choose the white arrowhead instead.

The white arrowhead is the Direct Selection Tool.

Once you are using the Direct Selection Tool (the white arrowhead), grab the triangle, and it will let you move the markers.

(If it still doesn’t, try clicking outside of the shape, and then choosing the shape again, and it should finally let you.)

This is how I moved the markers on the corners to change the shape of my triangle like the one below.

And then I changed the fill color, stroke color, and stroke thickness (as I mentioned earlier in the article).

Write Happy, Be Happy

Chris McMullen

Author of the Improve Your Math Fluency series of math workbooks and self-publishing guides

How to Crop a Circle (PhotoShop Tutorial)


The first step is to select the Marquee Tool on the PhotoShop toolbar.

In all the versions of PhotoShop that I’ve used, this toolbar appears on the left side of the screen.

The Marquee Tool is the second button on the toolbar.

The two most common options are the Rectangular Marquee Tool and the Elliptical Marquee Tool.

We’ll first try a rectangular crop, since that’s more common. Don’t worry, we’ll apply a circular crop soon.

Select the Rectangular Marquee Tool.

Left-click at one point in the picture that you would like to be one of the four corners of the rectangle.

As you drag your cursor, a dotted rectangle will appear.

It will tell you the width and height of the rectangle as you drag.

When you are happy with your rectangular selection, let go of the mouse button.

If you make a mistake and wish to try again, press Ctrl + Alt + Z. Each time you press Ctrl + Alt + Z, PhotoShop goes back one step.

Once you’re happy with your selection…

Select Image at the top menu (the one that starts File, Edit, Image, Layer, etc.).

Choose Crop.

Remember, you can press Ctrl + Alt + Z repeatedly to undo one step at a time.

Now we’ll make a circle crop instead.

Grab the Marquee Tool again from the left toolbar.

This time, choose the Elliptical Marquee Tool.

First just visualize in your mind the circle (or oval) that you wish to make.

To get the circle in the neighborhood of where I want it to be…

I focus on the point that will be the top left corner of the circle, and then I pick a spot even higher and further left than that.

(It may take a little trial and error to get good at selecting the initial point for your circle or oval. It may not work as you intuitively expect.)

Left-click on this point and drag the Elliptical Marquee Tool. I drag down to the right.

If you want a perfect circle, keep your eye on the width ( W ) and height ( H ) of your ellipse.

Position your mouse just right so that the width and height are equal in order to carve a perfect circle.

Press Ctrl + Alt + Z if you need to undo your selection. You can press this repeatedly to go back multiple steps. (Note that Alt in there. If you only press Ctrl + Z, you can only go back one step, whereas Ctrl + Alt + Z lets you go back multiple steps.)

Once you’re happy with your selection…

You could go to Image and select Crop…

But I prefer to go to Edit and select Cut.

Then I go to File and open a New Document.

I choose the option for the New Document to match the clipboard selection.

Then I go to Edit and select Paste.

This pastes my circular crop into a new file, as shown below.

Sometimes, the Quick Selection Tool on the toolbar can help you make a quick selection.

It’s worth trying, but this tool isn’t always quite as “magical” as one might hope.

For simple shapes where PhotoShop sees the image you want clearly against the background, the Quick Selection Tool can make crops easy.

In that case, once you have it selected properly, you can get it with a quick cut and paste.

However, when that doesn’t work, you can use the Marquee Tool as we have done here, or your can try the Lasso Tool for a freehand selection.

If you need to get into the finer details of Photoshop, you may want to Google how to create paths and masks, for example.

(There is a Crop Tool, but I’m not a big fan of using it to make crops. Though it is handy if you need to rotate the picture and make a rectangular crop.)

PhotoShop happy, be happy. 🙂

Chris McMullen

Copyright © 2017

Author of A Detailed Guide to Self-Publishing with Amazon and Other Online Booksellers

  • Volume 1 on formatting and publishing
  • Volume 2 on marketability and marketing
  • 4-in-1 Boxed set includes both volumes and more
  • Kindle Formatting Magic (coming soon)

Follow me at WordPress, find my author page on Facebook, or connect with me through Twitter.

How to Wrap Text around Images with Adobe PhotoShop (Tutorial)

The text in the above image was wrapped in PhotoShop.

The text in the above image was wrapped in PhotoShop.


There is a little ‘trick’ to wrapping text around an image in Adobe PhotoShop.

You won’t find an automated option that identifies itself as text or image wrap.

But you can wrap text around a picture in PhotoShop with a few easy steps.

I will show this step by step, with illustrations, specifically for Adobe PhotoShop Creative Cloud 2015 for Windows, but the same principle applies to other versions (although the specific steps may be somewhat different).


The following image shows the text and image, but not yet wrapped as desired.

The text layer is presently in front of the image layer.

Don’t worry. We’ll fix that in the following steps.

Text Wrap PhotoShop Text


The real ‘trick’ is that you don’t want to use an ordinary text box.

So let’s remove it. Well, you probably want to copy and paste the text into another file, so you can retrieve it later.

But then remove the text box from the PhotoShop file.

Just click on the text layer and delete it.


It’s easy:

  • Click on the Rectangle shape tool on the sidebar (which appears on the left by default; it’s about the 6th tool from the bottom). It may be hidden behind the Line tool (or Ellipse, Polygon, or Custom Shape). If so, click on the icon and hold your mouse there until the other options show up.
  • Before you draw the rectangle, click the dropdown menu that currently says Shape to change it to Path instead. (The third option is Pixels. We want Path.) You can find the dropdown menu in the illustration below (look for Path).
  • Now that you’ve changed it from a “shape” to a “path,” draw a rectangle on the screen. Place your cursor where you want the top left corner to be, then drag your cursor down to where you want the bottom right corner to be, and when you release your mouse, you will see a rectangle. You want the rectangle to be approximately the right size to hold your text.

Text Wrap Snip

The following illustration shows where I inserted my rectangular path (but I made the rectangle much bolder than it really is in order to help you see it).

Text Wrap PhotoShop Pic


Again, it’s easy:

  • First, exit the Rectangle tool so it knows that you want to make a new path (and not continue working on the previous one). Just click on the top tool from the toolbar on the left (the Move tool or the Artboard Tool), for example. Don’t use that tool. You’re just letting PhotoShop know that you’re finished with the previous step.
  • Now grab one of the shape tools. You might grab the Rectangle tool again (just like we did in Step 2), or you might pick the Ellipse tool if your image looks more like an oval or circle than a rectangle or square.
  • Again, you want to set it to Path (not Shape), just like Step 2.
  • But now you also want to select the option for Subtract Front Shape. You find this on another dropdown menu. Look at the Shape menu shown in Step 2 above. Click the icon just right of where it says “Shape” and beneath the word “View.” (The name of this icon is Path Operations. Just hover over an icon to find out what it’s called.) Then select “Subtract Front Shape.”
  • Now use the shape tool to create a rectangular or oval (depending on which Shape tool you chose) path around the image. In my case, I made a square around my image. See below (but remember, I made the rectangles appear bolder than they really are so that you can see them easily).

Text Wrap PhotoShop Pic 2


Now you just need add your text to the first rectangular path:

  • Again, exit the Shape tool, like you did in the beginning of Step 3.
  • Grab the Horizontal Type tool.
  • You don’t want to insert an ordinary text box.
  • Instead, you want to add the text to the large rectangular path that you created in Step 2.
  • Place your cursor anywhere inside the large rectangular path (fully inside the path). When you position the cursor correctly, the icon will change appearance so that it has a circular outline around it. That’s when you want to paste the text. Make sure it pastes into the rectangular path, and doesn’t create an ordinary text box.

If done correctly, the text automatically wraps around your subtracted path, as in my example below. (My “subtracted path” was the smaller rectangle created in Step 3.)

The text in the above image was wrapped in PhotoShop.

The text in the above image was wrapped in PhotoShop.

You may want to go into the character or paragraph settings and spruce up the typography.

One issue with wrapping text around a picture is that it makes the text width significantly smaller. This can lead to large gaps in justified text, for example. One way around that is to use left alignment (ragged right) instead. Otherwise, you need to learn a little about the art of typography to improve the design of the text. (Possible solutions include hyphenation, kerning, scaling, and other typographical tricks. That’s a topic for another post…)

Write happy, be happy. 🙂

Chris McMullen

Copyright © 2015

Author of the Improve Your Math Fluency series of workbooks and self-publishing guides

How to Make a Partially Transparent Layer in PhotoShop

Background image from ShutterStock.

Background image from ShutterStock.


I will show you how to make a partially transparent image in PhotoShop.

Specifically, I will show this for Adobe PhotoShop CC 2015 (since I have the Creative Cloud), but it works similarly in other versions, too.

You can see in the image above a couple of examples: I added transparency to the hearts and text. If you look closely, you will see that the background shows through them.

What you actually adjust is called opacity. You reduce the opacity to a layer in PhotoShop.

First, find the window that lists your layers. This probably shows at the far right of your screen.

Next, right-click on the desired layer, i.e. the image that you wish to add transparency to.

Look for Blending Options, which should be at the top of the list.

Near the top of the pop-up window, you will see the option for Opacity. It’s initially set to 100%. Reduce the opacity to create transparency.

You can type in a percentage, or you can slide the bar right or left. The scrollbar is convenient, as you can see the impact as you scroll.

The Blending Options pop-up window comes in handy. You can find a lot of other cool options here, too, like the option to create a custom gradient.

Write happy, be happy. 🙂

Chris McMullen

Author of the Improve Your Math Fluency series of workbooks and self-publishing guides

How to Make Gradient Text (PhotoShop Tutorial)

Background image from ShutterStock.

Background image from ShutterStock.


Making gradient text with Adobe PhotoShop may not seem as intuitive as it could be.

As I have the Adobe Creative Cloud, my tutorial will specifically show how to make gradient text using PhotoShop CC 2015, but it works similarly with other versions of Adobe PhotoShop.


If you haven’t already done so, first add text. One way to add text is to use the Horizontal Type Tool on the toolbar.

Gradient Add Text

(Click on an image if you wish to view it larger.)

With the text layer selected and the type tool selected, adjust the font style and size to your liking in the top toolbar.


Set the foreground and background colors in advance. One way to adjust these is to click the Set Foreground Color or Set Background Color tool on the toolbar.

Gradient Fore Back

Alternatively, you can choose from one of the default gradients or a gradient that you have saved previously.


To create gradient text, right-click on the text layer from the list of layers at the right.

Gradient Layer

Choose Blending Options at the top of the list.

Find Gradient Overlay on the left side of the pop-up. Don’t check the box. Instead, click the + button.

Now the Gradient Overlay options will appear on the right side of the pop-up. Click on the dropdown menu next to Gradient. You can select the simple two-color gradient using the foreground and background colors, or you can choose one of the default gradients or a gradient that you’ve added previously.

You can also adjust other options, such as Style and Angle.

Gradient Text

Write happy, be happy. 🙂

Chris McMullen

Copyright © 2015

Chris McMullen, Author of A Detailed Guide to Self-Publishing with Amazon and Other Online Booksellers

  • Volume 1 on formatting and publishing
  • Volume 2 on marketability and marketing
  • 4-in-1 Boxed set includes both volumes and more
  • Kindle Formatting Magic (coming soon)

Follow me at WordPress, find my author page on Facebook, or connect with me through Twitter.


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Infinite Feedback Loop in PhotoShop

Infinite Loop 4

Infinity and background images from ShutterStock.



In photography, you can display a camera’s image on a monitor and point the camera at the monitor to create an infinite feedback loop.

Image from ShutterStock.

Image from ShutterStock.

There is a simple way to create this effect in PhotoShop.

Let me illustrate this by showing how I created the image for this post.

I began with a simple image in PhotoShop, consisting of a background image, a foreground image, a tablet, and a line of text.

Images from ShutterStock.

Images from ShutterStock.

I saved this as a PhotoShop file in PSD format and then created a PNG image of it as well.

Next, I opened the PNG file and resized it to match the screen size of the tablet.

In my version of PhotoShop (I have the Creative Cloud), I used Select > All and Edit > Copy to copy the image, and then I switched windows to my PSD file. I used Edit > Paste to insert the PNG image into the PSD file, and positioned it to fit on the screen.

Images from ShutterStock.

Images from ShutterStock.

My original image was 1024 pixels wide. The tablet’s screen size in the original image is 340 pixels wide. The ratio is 0.332.

Multiply 340 by 0.332 to get 113. The next PNG image needs to be scaled to 113 pixels wide. Copy and paste that image into the PSD file to add another loop to the picture.

Images from ShutterStock.

Images from ShutterStock.

Repeat these steps (multiplying by the same ratio; in my example, the ratio is 0.332) until you can’t tell with your eye that the feedback loop isn’t ‘infinite.’

Chris McMullen

Copyright © 2015

Chris McMullen, Author of A Detailed Guide to Self-Publishing with Amazon and Other Online Booksellers

  • Volume 1 on formatting and publishing
  • Volume 2 on marketability and marketing
  • 4-in-1 Boxed set includes both volumes and more

Follow me at WordPress, find my author page on Facebook, or connect with me through Twitter.


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How to Remove the Background from an Object (PhotoShop Tutorial)

Background Jupiter


Sometimes, you find the perfect image for your needs, but it’s part of another picture.

You don’t want to use the entire picture. A simple crop won’t suffice. You’d really love to extract just that image from the background.

Similarly, if you shop for a stock image at ShutterStock or iStockPhoto, sometimes you can purchase a whole set of similar objects in a single picture, instead of buying each one individually. When the images are packed tightly, sometimes a simple rectangular crop won’t work to extract just one image. What you need to know is how to remove one object from the background.

There are several ways that you might remove an image from its background (or remove the background from an image) using Adobe PhotoShop.

I will discuss two different ways to approach this, and discuss both simple and complex cases.

The process is easiest when the background consists of a single solid cover, but in practice, that’s often not the case.

It’s good to know a variety of methods, so you can use the simplest method when it works, but have back-up plans for when it doesn’t.

Just in case your version of Adobe PhotoShop may be a little different, you may want to know that I’m using Adobe PhotoShop CC (i.e. through the Creative Cloud).


When the quick selection tools work the way you’d like them to, they’re fantastic.

The idea is to quickly grab one object that you “see” in the picture, and then you can simply cut it (Edit > Cut), open a new file, and paste it in (Edit > Paste).

The problem is that PhotoShop doesn’t always “see” the same sets of objects that you see with your eye and interpret with your mind.

If the background is a solid color that contrasts well with the image, the quick selection tool often proves to be very convenient.

But if the background is complex or blends in part with the image you want to grab, you might discover that this tool doesn’t always grab things the way you’d like.

Fortunately, it’s easy to test this tool out and see if it will work easily for your task. If not, you can try something else.

Find the quick selection tools on the toolbar (which appears in a column on the left of my screen). For me, it’s the fourth icon down from the top.

PhotoShop Quick Selection

There are two tools in one: A quick selection tool and a magic wand tool. Click on whichever icon appears in the toolbar and hold it down for a moment (or just right-click the icon) to display both choices, then you can switch to the other tool.

I use the quick selection tool to try and grab the object. I sometimes find the magic wand tool helpful to grab one small part of an image (or several small pieces) that I couldn’t grab all together with the quick selection tool. Despite its name, the “magic wand” tool doesn’t simply read your mind and do whatever you hope for; but the “magic” comes in when it succeeds in grabbing a small, odd shape that’s otherwise hard to select.

When you choose the quick selection tool, another toolbar appears (in my case, it shows horizontally at the top of the screen). One of these icons has a number, and allows you to choose the brush picker. Click this icon and adjust the pixel size. I usually work with 100% roundness. If it’s not doing what you want, other things you can play with include hardness and spacing.

My first goal is to get the pixel size just right. When you hover over the image, you’ll see a circle appear with cross-hairs in the middle. As you vary the pixel size, the circle resizes accordingly. I first want as large a circle as I can make without any part of the circle extending into the background. Then I position the cross-hairs over the object with the complete circle within the object, and left-click once.

You’ll see a selection path appear on the screen. If this path happens to be exactly what you want, then ta-da, you can simply go to Edit > Cut to put your image onto the clipboard.

If the selection path extends into the background, then if you cut the object out, it will include part of the background along with it. If you want to avoid grabbing part of the background, too, then you want to be careful that the selection doesn’t extend into the background. (However, in complex cases, sometimes it pays to select the object along with a little of the background, put this image into a new canvas, and then work on removing that little bit of excess background.)

If the selection path includes less than what you want to select, you can increase the selection path by placing the cross-hairs at another position in the image and left-clicking again. You can resize the circle before making the second selection. You can click a third, fourth, fifth, etc. time, as needed, to try and build up exactly what you want.

But sometimes, PhotoShop just doesn’t see the object the way you that you do, and no matter how you try to select the object, the quick selection tool just doesn’t provide the convenient option you’re looking for.

Note that you can press Ctrl + Alt + Z to go a step backward, and press it repeatedly to undo several steps (but note that there is a limit to how far you can go back, so be careful not to go too far forward if you’re just experimenting).

In the example below, I used the quick selection tool to easily remove Jupiter from the solar system picture.

Background Jupiter Before

Background Jupiter After

It wasn’t as easy to remove Saturn from this photo, however, as the dark shadows from and within the rings blend with the background. I used the quick selection three times: Once to grab the planet, and twice (with much smaller sized circles) to grab the two sides of the rings. Below it looks like it came out well because I pasted it onto a black background:

Background Saturn

However, the following picture shows that this technique didn’t work perfectly. In this case, I could use the background eraser (with a fine scale) to wipe off the little background that came with the image.

Background Saturn 2


If you’re not having luck trying to select an object with the quick selection tools, you may have better luck removing the background.

The eraser tools can help you do this. For me, the eraser tools are the 11th icon down the toolbar.

These include the eraser, background eraser, and magic eraser tools. Right-click the eraser icon to see the alternatives (or hold it down for a moment).

I usually begin with the background eraser.

PhotoShop Eraser

The background eraser can be convenient when you have an image that is distinct from a simple background.

The erasers can also be useful (though not necessarily convenient) for complex images or backgrounds. Some cases are simpler than others. The more complex cases can involve some work and patience.

Let’s look at the simple case first.

In the image below, I first attempted to remove the earth with the quick selection tool (followed by a cut and paste).

Earth 2

It looked pretty good at first, but when I pasted it into a new file, I noticed some imperfections. It’s not smooth. Look closely and you can see the inconsistency along the border.

Earth Clipped

So next I used the background eraser tool.

First, adjust the size of the background eraser. Look for the icon on the top toolbar (when the background eraser is already selected) that has a number in it. I like as large a circle that I can use that won’t create problems.

Don’t place the cross-hairs in the image that you’re trying to keep. Place the cross-hairs over the background. It’s okay for the circle to extend onto the object you’re trying to preserve in the foreground, provided that the color of the background is distinct enough from the colors in the foreground. When you have whites or grays in your image, and white on the background, for example, then the background eraser can remove the light colors from your foreground. In that case, you must be careful not to let the circle extend into those similar colors of the foreground.

It takes a little trial and error to get the size just right, and sometimes you need to use a large size for parts of the background, and a smaller size for other parts. You can eliminate a huge part of the background with an extremely large circle, but often need a smaller circle if precision removal is needed near the foreground object (but if the foreground and background colors are distinct enough from one another, you don’t need those smaller circles—precision isn’t called for).

I set the roundness to 100% for most jobs. Also play with the tolerance to get that right (is it removing too much? too little?).

I usually like to have Limits set to Find Edges, but on complex backgrounds, PhotoShop can find edges that you’d like to ignore. In that case, try adjusting the tolerance, or try contiguous or discontiguous.

Below, you can see how I used the background eraser to remove the background near the earth. (Note that with large circles it would be very easy to remove the rest. I left it like this so you can see how I got the process started.)

Earth Background

Compared to the quick selection tool, the outline of earth’s atmosphere is much smoother.

It helps to pay attention to detail when using the erasers. Sometimes, you wipe out a lot of background and wipe out just a little foreground along with it, and it’s not always easy to notice that little bit of foreground that disappeared. Watch closely.

The eraser tools don’t always work so easily. It depends on the complexity of the background and whether or not parts of the foreground and background can easily get confused by PhotoShop.

Sometimes, it’s a challenge to remove the part of the background adjacent to parts of the foreground. This often happens when there are similar colors in both.

In that case, I first trim away as much of the background as I can easily without interfering with the foreground.

Then I use the regular eraser (not the background eraser) to do some precision trimming. (Or sometimes, after removing much of the background, the quick selection tool works better than it had originally. It doesn’t hurt to try, as long as you don’t go more steps forward than you can undo.)

After selecting the regular eraser, on the horizontal toolbar at the top, a tiny drop-down arrow (at the left of this toolbar) lets you choose a chiseled or pencil eraser. The mode options include brush, pencil, or block. I find the block convenient for cutting out straight sections (and you can go to Edit > Transform to rotate the image so that the part you want to trim is perfectly horizontal or vertical). I don’t hold it down and drag the block; I cut out one block at a time (click, move, click, move, etc.), careful to line up each cut (and press undo if it’s slightly off). If it’s not straight, I may use something other than the block, and then I try dragging to erase. I do it in stages, unclicking to save one section when I’m happy with it. Precision erasing can get tedious, especially with complex boundaries.

Let me illustrate erasing with the following picture of dice that I took for my math blog.


I first cut out the purple die with the quick selection tool, but that included the shadow along with it.


So then I wanted to remove the shadow. It proved not to be easy, as PhotoShop easily confused the dark purple of the die itself with the dark shadow.

I used Edit > Transform to free rotate the image until the bottom edge appeared horizontal (I later realized that the cut shown wasn’t quite parallel to that edge), and then I used the eraser tool in block mode to cut across.

Die Clipped

I next made the right edge vertical to clip up the right side, and finally cut out the corner.

Die Clipped 2

The cuts shown aren’t perfect. If I needed more precision, I could continue with precision erasing, or I could try to blur these edges to match the fuzziness of the others, etc.

The blue die was easier to extract with the background eraser, as it was easier for PhotoShop to discriminate between the blue faces and dark shadow. If you look closely, though, you’ll see that it didn’t erase completely (but that light mess could be cleaned up with some more work).

Die Rotated and Clipped


PhotoShop is loaded with options, from masks to clipping paths to filters. There usually are several ways to do something, not just one or two ways.

Do you have another method of extracting an image from a picture that you prefer? Please share your idea in the comments. 🙂

Image credits

All of the images used in my examples are from NASA’s website (except, of course, for the dice photo that I took myself).

Chris McMullen

Copyright © 2015

Chris McMullen, Author of A Detailed Guide to Self-Publishing with Amazon and Other Online Booksellers

  • Volume 1 on formatting and publishing
  • Volume 2 on marketability and marketing
  • 4-in-1 Boxed set includes both volumes and more

Follow me at WordPress, find my author page on Facebook, or connect with me through Twitter.


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